Thursday, July 2, 2015

Second Industrial Revolution

American politics in the last third of the 19th century was dominated by the spoils system and the emergence of political machines and bosses, particularly in the burgeoning urban areas. Political abuses set the stage for reform efforts.

USA history

The Election of 1880 brought the short tenure of James A. Garfield, who was succeeded by his vice president Chester A. Arthur, whose administration was noted for the passage of the Pendleton Act (1883).

The Election of 1884 ushered in the first administration of Grover Cleveland. The Interstate Commerce Act was passed in 1887.

Benjamin Harrison took office after the Election of 1888 and oversaw the enactment of the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and the McKinley Tariff, all in 1890.

Cleveland returned for a second term following the Democratic victory in 1892, making him the only president elected to non-consecutive terms.

Major labor strife erupted in the Homestead Strike (1892) and the Pullman Strike(1894).

The post-Civil War years witnessed a new industrial era with advances in industrial technology, the building of the transcontinental railroads, and the development of the corporation. The growth of the industrial society depended on the cheap labor of the poor and the immigrants, groups that turned to unions to improve their lives. Opposing sides debated the relative merits of the new capitalism.

The new industrial age featured such titans as John D. Rockefeller, who organized oil trusts to ensure greater profits and less competition; Henry Ford, "father of mass production and the assembly line;" ^Andrew Carnegie, who built the modern steel industry with the integration of all phases of the process; and J.P. Morgan, who marshaled financial resources to form the world’s first billion dollar corporation.

As the railroads began to tie the continent together, the West experienced unparalleled growth that featured mining booms, the growth of a cattle culture and plains farming. The relentless westward push increased friction with resident Native Americans. The Wounded Knee Masacre (1890) became the last major uprising of American Indians.

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